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Furthermore, there is a strong coupling between structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom in the heterostructure. This can be seen in Fig. 3b (right axis), which shows the difference in the layer-by-layer total magnetic moment (per Mn atom) between the + P and − P states, Δ M . The change in the magnetic moment is entirely consistent with the hopping of 'down'-spin electrons from the LaMnO 3 layer to the NdMnO 3 layer. The ME origin of the switchable polarization in the SLs suggests that changing magnetic moment alignment, for example, by applying an external magnetic field will strongly influence the charge transfer and thus leads to the magnetic modulation of the polarization as it is observed experimentally. In particular, the application of a magnetic field will break the inversion symmetry of the magnetic ordering and will therefore favour further charge transfer to one layer over the other, and therefore lead to a larger polarization.

Our calculations suggest that the ferromagnetism originates from the interfaces, consistent with ref. . On the other hand, the relaxor behaviour could not be seen from the theoretical results, which describe a static and zero-temperature behaviour revealing thus only the ground state of the system. Nevertheless, our DFT results indicate that the magnetic order and the origin of ferroelectricity are coupled (through the 'trapping' and 'hopping' of 'down'-spin charge), therefore, ferroelectricity should have relaxor character too (as depicted in Fig. 1 ). Finally, we note that as the polar displacements and the largest changes in the magnetization profile are localized at the interfaces ( Fig. 3b ), the net polarization and magnetization should scale with the density of interfaces, that is, a 1/ n dependence on the lattice periodicity, n , which is consistent with the experimental thickness dependence depicted in Fig. 2c for n ≥5.

The SLs studied here are comprised of three manganite perovskites each having a different A-site ion size thus introducing modulated strain and effective chemical doping. Reciprocal mapping using synchrotron X-ray diffraction showed that although the in-plane lattice constants of all films match the lattice constant of the substrate, our SLs exhibit a tetragonal lattice distortion. Even though our experiments do not allow an estimate of atomic displacement, structural distortions and chemical engineering including Mn off-centering have been suggested to encourage FE instabilities in various perovskite systems. Besides, electronic reconstruction arising from the interfacial Mn/Mn mixed valency would favour the formation of local electric dipolar moments accommodated with a magnetic degree of freedom. Remarkably, our calculations revealed that a synergy between asymmetric lattice distortion and atomic displacement, mixed valency and tunability of charge itinerancy by an applied magnetic field finally leads to a magnetically controlled FE polarization. Our discovery is a long sought demonstration for emergent ferroelectricity and magnetoelectricity in an artificial system originating purely in the broken space inversion symmetry as well as in the strong carriers' complexity and correlations at the nanoscale. A plethora of artificial FE and ME low-dimensional devices may now be designed and fabricated following the recipe for a tri-layer SL comprised of transition metal oxides incorporating mixed valency, compatible magnetic ordering and asymmetric cation displacement.

In conclusion, we demonstrated the emergence of ferroelectricity in artificial SLs composed of materials that are non-FE in their bulk form. We also observed up to 150% increase in the measured by the application of a magnetic field. Engineering systems with tunable ferroelectricity and ME coupling in asymmetrically layered devices comprised of materials abundant in synthetic chemistry such as those used in the present study would widen the versatility of electric polarization functionality.

Capacitor fabrication and general measurement details

Circular metallic (Pt/Au) pads of various diameters (100–300 μm) were patterned on the SLs using electron-beam evaporation. The thickness of the SrTiO substrate was 500 μm. A metallic layer was deposited on the underside of the substrate using the same evaporation technique as for the top electrodes and served as a common bottom capacitor plate. Silver paint contacts were placed on the top and bottom metallic pads of the samples for both polarization and capacitance measurements. A systematic error of <5% was obtained when repeating measurements several times under identical experimental conditions. The results were accurately reproducible using many different capacitors of the same sample type. No aging effect was observed.

Capacitance–voltage measurements

The capacitance–voltage (C-V) measurements were performed at various temperatures using an LCR metre with an AC signal frequency and magnitude of 20 kHz and 200 mV, respectively. Measurements using different voltage scanning directions (defined by arrows in the corresponding plots) revealed the FE switching of the SLs. The virgin curves of voltage scanning from 0 V to maximum value are not shown.

DC polarization data processing

Polarization () was measured using a pyroelectric current technique with a bias electric field () applied perpendicular to the plane of the SL (using a Keithley electrometer 6517B). During an electric field cooling process, the samples were first polarized by applying the desired at high temperature and then cooled to 5 K while was maintained at the same bias. During the zero electric field cooling process, the samples were cooled to 5 K in zero . The pyroelectric current and the sample temperature were then recorded as a function of time, while the sample was warmed at a constant and a heating rate of 5 K min. A typical value of =+100 V cm was used (All measurements of were performed during an electric field heating process, unless otherwise stated.). For the zero magnetic field cooling (ZMFC) process, the sample was cooled to base temperature in the absence of an applied magnetic field, whereas in the case of MFC a constant magnetic field was applied during cooling. In both cases, the heating cycle was performed in the presence of a magnetic field—applied parallel to the plane of the film, unless otherwise stated. Similar tests have been reported for the magnetization of our SLs.

AC polarization measurements

Polarization versus electric field (-) hysteresis loops were measured at various temperatures using a TF 2000 analyser with ranging from −2 to 2 kV cm (the thickness of the SrTiO substrate limited the maximum applied electric field). The AC signal frequency ranged from 10 Hz to 1 kHz. An initial triangular excitation pulse was applied to establish a polarization state. Three consecutive excitation pulses followed, separated by a relaxation time of 1 s. During each pulse, the current was measured and the polarization extracted by integrating the current with respect to time.

calculations

Electronic and atomic structure calculations were performed within DFT applied to (LaMnO)/(SrMnO)/(NdMnO) SLs. The calculations used the projector augmented wave method as implemented in the Vienna Simulation Package code. The exchange–correlation effects were treated within generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculations were carried out using a plane-wave basis set with a cutoff energy of 520 eV and an 8×8×4 mesh of k points in the irreducible Brillouin zone with energy converged to 0.01 meV per cell. Atomic relaxations were performed until the Hellmann–Feynman forces on atoms have become <30 meV Å. The in-plane lattice constant is constrained to the experimental bulk lattice constant of SrTiO, =3.905 Å. On-site electron-electron Coulomb interactions of the Mn-3 states were treated within the GGA+U approach. We impose =8.0 and =1 eV on Mn-3 states giving reasonable band gaps for all three components: =0.99, 1.2 and 0.23 eV for LaMnO, NdMnO and SrMnO, respectively, which are consistent with experimental values 1.0 eV (ref. ), 1.7 eV (ref. ) and 0.3 eV (ref. ). As the La-4 bands lie at higher energy than that predicted by GGA, the value of for the La-4 states was taken to be 11.0 eV to avoid spurious mixing with the conduction bands. The structural model was initially constructed from the bulk structures of each manganite component, all of which are found to have the tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedrons consistent with the Pnma space group. The Mn magnetic moments are arranged in a collinear manner, according to the known antiferromagnetic ordering in the bulk compounds: G-type in SrMnO and A-type in both LaMnO and NdMnO, as indicated in Fig. 3a . Those MnO layers sandwiched between SrO and LaO or NdO layers continue the neighbouring A-type order, whereas the MnO layer sandwiched between two SrO takes on a G-type checkerboard pattern. Several other collinear magnetic order configurations were tested and were found to have higher energy.

Rogdakis, K. . Tunable ferroelectricity in artificial tri-layer superlattices comprised of non-ferroic components. 3:1064 doi: 10.1038/ncomms2061 (2012).

Download references

Lines, M. E. Glass, A. M. (Clarendon Press, 1977).

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Meghan Potkins, Calgary Herald Colones Black Mens grained deer leather sneaker in black Bally Cheap Sale Best qWhI1BhMI
Updated: July 18, 2018

Calgary City Hall council chambers. Gavin Young / Calgary Herald

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A city council committee has approved an additional $5 million to decide whether Calgary should pursue a bid for the 2026 Olympic Winter Games, as councillors prepare for a face-to-face meeting with International Olympic Committee representatives next week.

Council’s Olympic committee voted Tuesday to spend $5.1 million for the city to undertake further “due diligence” work. Part of the funding will go toward a public engagement program that will start in September, five months after it was originally scheduled to begin.

Funding would come from existing city budget savings rather than the $30 million previously dedicated by the municipal, provincial and federal governments to cover the costs of a bid, the city said Tuesday.

If approved by a full vote of council later this month, more than $3 million of the funds would be spent in advance of a plebiscite on a possible bid for the 2026 Olympics, expected sometime in November.

“To have us as a city do due diligence to protect (our) best interests, to make sure that what the bid corporation is putting forward aligns with what the City of Calgary wants to have happen — it’s not a bad way of putting insurance money out there,” Coun. Peter Demong said following Tuesday’s meeting.

Committee members also learned Tuesday that representatives from the International Olympic Committee will visit the city next week; councillors will get the chance to sit down with IOC members July 24 over the lunch hour. The IOC delegation is also expected to meet with representatives from the federal and provincial governments, as well as Calgary 2026.

Tuesday’s meeting also saw concerns raised about missed deadlines on the Olympic file.

Detailed Olympic cost estimates, initially expected at the end of June, are now anticipated to come in September, alongside the release of a cost-sharing agreement between key stakeholders and the provincial and federal governments.

A public engagement program initially planned to run from April to September has been pushed back to a September start.

Mayor Naheed Nenshi also raised the prospect of the plebiscite being delayed if negotiations on the multi-party agreement aren’t concluded in time for September.

“If we end up having to delay the plebiscite until January, two bad things happen: (one) is we spend all this money on the bid itself because we’ve got to keep going,” Nenshi said. “(And) if the plebiscite were to fail, we would end up dropping out very late in the IOC’s process, and that’s actually really bad for the federal government and really bad for the Canadian Olympic Committee in terms of future bids.”

Coun. Evan Woolley said he doesn’t want to see the plebiscite pushed to January, when Calgary would be expected to submit its completed bid book to the IOC.

“I am becoming worried about timelines bumping up,” Woolley told the committee.“We need to give Calgarians who are making the decision (the) best information possible with enough time to consume and have a civic conversation about that.”

Meanwhile, about 300 people gathered at WinSport on Tuesday afternoon for an information session hosted by Yes Calgary 2026, a grassroots group pushing for a bid.

Organizer Jason Ribeiro said the group is hoping to clarify misconceptions surrounding the benefits of bidding for the Games, such as the legacy they would leave.

“That’s a major thing that’s been missing from the narrative in looking at the Games, not just as a two-week party or an economic quagmire, but something that’s built to last in terms of a 30-year legacy,” he said.

Yes Calgary 2026 is not a “yes at all costs,” he said. In fact, Ribeiro said he encouraged skepticism about the benefits of bringing the Olympics back to Calgary.

“I think we would get a better deal if we get better engagement, if we’re skeptical,” Ribeiro said. “We’re operating with a limited amount of information right now. I think we’re looking at a lot of what CBEC (the Calgary Bid Exploration Committee) has done, a lot of the information that resulted from council chambers, but we need skeptics, we need to not make this an either/or.”

Erin Waite, a spokeswoman for the No Calgary Olympics campaign, said the risks, such as cost overruns, are simply too great to move ahead with a bid.

“You cannot look at those upsides without also looking at the downside and the risk,” she said. “For most people, probably cost is the issue, but for me, personally, it really is the relationship with the IOC that I have a problem with and I would rather take on a different project that didn’t involve the IOC.”

But Ribeiro said Calgary is uniquely positioned to avoid problems that have been common in former host cities.

“Calgary is different in terms of circumstances from any of those Games,” he said. “Calgary has done something . . . that is the crown jewel of the international sports world. So in terms of cost overruns, we’re not going to have to do the building that other cities needed to do in terms of infrastructure. We can take the best of some of the previous Games and apply it now, in terms of reusing and recycling when it comes to construction.”

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Proposed budget for the City of Calgary’s Olympic secretariat, a group tasked with assessing the risks associated with Calgary hosting the 2026 Games. Postmedia / Postmedia

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| An Izote flower symbolizes of 154 years of friendship
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On June 15, 2017, U.S. Ambassador to San Salvador, Jean Elizabeth Manes and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Hugo Martínez planted an Izote flower in a garden at the U.S. Embassy in San Salvador as a symbol of the friendship and bilateral relations stablished between the United States and El Salvador on June 15, 1863. The flower-planting was one of many activities to celebration of the Friendship Day between both nations, decreed by the Legislative Assembly.

U.S. Ambassador, Jean Manes said: “In these 154 years of friendship, we have accompanied each other at key moments for our nations and, it is our desire that this relationship not only continues, but continues to grow even more.”

“That’s why we decided to celebrate this date with the symbolic planting of the Izote flower. As you know, it is the national flower of El Salvador, renowned for its beauty, its various applications and its adaptability. I think these are qualities that very well describe the Salvadoran people who can also flourish and thrive despite the challenges they face, “ she added.

As part of the demonstration of friendship, the U.S. diplomat gave three roses to the representatives of the three branches of the Salvadoran State, Magistrate of the Criminal Chamber of the Supreme Court Doris Luz Rivas Galindo, Minister of Foreign Affairs Hugo Martínez and the President of the Legislative Assembly Guillermo Gallegos. The rose is the national flower of the United States and was delivered as a gesture of the United States’ commitment to continue supporting the Salvadoran efforts.

During his speech, Minister Hugo Martinez said: “The United States is one of our greatest strategic allies in a much broader sense, a fact that undoubtedly is part of the conviction that both nations have about the importance of supporting each other.”

Afterwards, Ambassador Manes and Minister Martinez held a press conference and announced that they were ready to attend the Conference on Prosperity and Security in Central America to be held on Thursday, June 15 and Friday, June 16, in Miami, Florida.

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